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One of his main contributions to the field was focusing on the development of theory in a series of edited volumes (1983, 1988, , you will note that the theory has blossomed from a mere 13 axioms in 1988 to 94 axioms in the 1995 version (47 axioms, but then an addition of a Hofstede dimension to show how each might change from one type of culture to another.
In 2005, has tried to group the massive number of variables in different ways.
The theory uses axioms, which many summarizers of the theory accidentally cite like mathematical axioms as statements that need no further proof.
In fact, the whole point of research in these studies is to test the axioms.
A good way to think of this is to think about two individuals in a family: We often think that little Suzy is misbehaving because she is upset or is just a rebel.
But Suzy sees her behavior as an act of trying to establish independence or control in a situation with very authoritarian parents. In this particular case, the parents impose control because (to them) Suzy seems out of control.
One author tries to visualize AUM in this fashion: enormous breadth of reading in social scientific literature of identity, transitions, and intercultural communication in general, he has had to try different ways to organize his 47 axioms (at one point, 94! Each area (e.g., reaction to strangers), contain several As some (e.g., Baldwin, 1995) suggested, there is lack of clarity as to whether it is attributional confidence (how certain we are that we can predict the behavior of the otherthe inverse of uncertainty) or attributional accuracy (how accurate we are in predicting the behavior of the other) that really predicts our effectiveness.
In later version, though without any citation to Baldwin, 1995, It is not, he concludes, how much U or A someone has, but ones ability to manage it, or keep it within appropriate thresholds, that leads to effective communication and to eventual relationship development. That is, he notes that for each axiom, the relationship between the variables might change depending on whether one is from a collectivist or individualist culture (or based on one of the other dimensions, whichever is most important to the axiom).
Suzy rebels because (to her) the parents are too strict.
In this case, neither behavior is distinct, but the behaviors interact, causing each other with a sort of mutual or reciprocal causality.
& Hammer) are that, while we would expect demographic (e.g., racial, urban/rural) similarity to be very important in mate selection or dating preference, really attitudinal similarity (beliefs, morals, goals) is more important in attraction.