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One study suggested that adolescent mothers are less likely to stimulate their infant through affectionate behaviors such as touch, smiling, and verbal communication, or to be sensitive and accepting toward his or her needs.Poor academic performance in the children of teenage mothers has also been noted, with many of the children being held back a grade level, scoring lower on standardized tests, and/or failing to graduate from secondary school.Pregnant teenagers face many of the same pregnancy related issues as other women.
In a rural hospital in West Bengal, teenage mothers between 15 and 19 years old were more likely to have anemia, preterm delivery, and a baby with a lower birth weight than mothers between 20 and 24 years old.
The Guttmacher Institute reports that one-third of pregnant teens receive insufficient prenatal care and that their children are more likely to have health issues in childhood or be hospitalized than those born to older women.
Many teen parents do not have the intellectual or emotional maturity that is needed to provide for another life.
Factors that determine which mothers are more likely to have a closely spaced repeat birth include marriage and education: the likelihood decreases with the level of education of the young woman – or her parents – and increases if she gets married.
Many solutions to counteract the more negative findings have been proposed.
Teenage parents who can rely on family and community support, social services and child-care support are more likely to continue their education and get higher paying jobs as they progress with their education.Young motherhood in an industrialized country can affect employment and social class.Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance.Risks of low birth weight, premature labor, anemia, and pre-eclampsia are connected to the biological age, being observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors (such as accessing prenatal care etc.).In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, poverty, and other negative life outcomes in children of teenage mothers.However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical problems.